the anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate.


production of ethanol

fermentation

During the production of beer and wine, yeast metabolize the glucose of fruit under anaerobic conditions. During this process glucose is converted to pyruvate by glycolysis (the black arrow in the figure below).

pyruvate is converted to acetaldehye and carbon dioxide (the green arrow in the figure below)

acetaldehyde is then converted to ethanol (the red arrow in the figure below) which is a coupled oxidation reduction reaction requiring NAD.

to get a more detailed look at the reactions indicated by the black, green and red arrows move the pointer over the arrows until a hand appears and then click.


Lactic acid production

In some eucaryotic and procaryotic cells pyruvate can be converted to lactic acid under anaerobic conditions.

(to view more details of the reaction move the pointer over the green arrow until a hand appears and then click)

For example, muscle cells will convert pyruvate to lactic acid. The anaerobic buildup of lactic acid has several effects one of which is the Bohr effect.