Integral membrane proteins

In the example below the relationship of the bacterial phototraping pigment, bacteriorhodopsin, and the phospholipid bilayer is illustrated. In this case the integral membrane protein spans the phospholipid bilayer seven times. The part of the protein that is embedded in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer are alpha helical and composed of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. The amino terminal end of the protein is in the cytosol while the C terminal region is in the outside of the cell. When a membrane contain this protein the membrane can function in photosynthesis.

Other examples of integral membrane proteins