1. Hydrogen bonds are not found in which of the following situations?

a. in stabilizing the secondary structure of proteins

b. in van der waals interactions

c. in ice water

d. in the tertiary structure of proteins

e. in the quaternary structure of proteins

2. Which of the following statementsconcerning carbohydrates is correct ?

a. monosaccharides can have only five or six carbons

b. they play a role in ABO blood typing

c. Amylose is a polysaccharides but amylopectin is nota polysaccharide

d. The carbohydrates of plasma membrane glycoproteins arefound facing toward the cytoplasm.

e. glycogen has only beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds.

3. The primary structure ofa protein...

a. Does not involve hydrogen bonding

b. Does include van der Waals forces

c. is destroyed by freezing proteins.

d. involves both alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets.

e. is affected by hydrophobic interactions.

4. Hydrogen bonds...

a. Are not easily broken under biological conditions

b. are involved in van der Waal's attractions

c. Arise from nonpolar covalent bonds.

d. can be formed with some amino acids side chains.

e. Are never found in water.

5. Pick the incorrect endingto the following. Under biological (aqueous) conditions

a. ions form electrostatic interactions with water molecules

b. Ions are not involved in determining the tertiary structureof proteins

c. Ions are a part of the structure and function of triglycerides

d. ions can pass through the plasma membrane by the processof simple diffusion

e. ionic bonds tends to stabilize the formation of proteinsecondary structure.

6. Which of the following statementsis correct?

a. cholesterol is not considered a lipid

b. triglycerides but not fatty acids are consideredlipids

c. Triglycerides are composed of glycerol and phospholipids

d. some amino acid side chains can enter into hydrophobicinteractions with lipids

e. in biological systems lipids are hydrophilic.

7. Starch, glycogen and celluloseare:...

a. all polysaccharides

b. all composed of the alpha isomer of glucose

c. all have the same kinds of glycosidic bonds

d. all have the same macromolecular structure

e. all play a structural role.

8. Which of the following proteins has ATPase activity?

a. Active transport proteins

b. antiports

c. uniports

d. symports

e. Glucose permease

1. Under biological conditions, which of the following types of bondswould be the most stable to changes in environmental condiitions?

a. hydrogen

b. covalent

c. ionic

d. van der Waal's

e. hydrophobic interactions

 

2. The secondary structure of proteins results from the properties ofwhich of the following types of bonds.

a. van der Waals interactions

b. covalent

c. ionic

d. metastable

e. short lived

 

3. The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acidsof the protein and involves only

a. ionic bonds

b. covalent bonds

c. hydrogen bonds

d. hydrophobic interactions

e. hydrophilic interactions

 

4. Which of the following statements concerning hydrogen bonds is notcorrect?

a. they are easily broken under biological conditions

b. they are involved in stabilizing the secondary structure of proteins

c. they are involved in the hydration of monosaccharides

d. in general, hydrocarbons do not form hydrogen bonds

e. only water molecules can form hydrogen bonds with the amino acidsof proteins

 

5. Under biological (aqueous) conditions, which of the following is nota property of ions?

a. in aqueous solutions they form electrostatic interactions with watermolecules

b. they can be involved in determining the tertiary structure of proteins

c. they can pass through the plasma membrane by the process of simplediffusion

d. they are important to the structure and function of phospholipids

e. in a protein having many amino acids with ionic side chains, ionicbonds tends to destabilize the formation of

protein secondary structure.

 

6. Ions that are dissolved in water ...

a. are always associated with proteins

b. do not affect the osmotic properties of the solution they are in

c. are bo"HÄ+0"å­lecules

d. c·¥Ýass through membranes by simple diffusion

e. are usually bonded to other ions by covalent bonds

 

use the following figure to answer the next five questions

structures of various moleucles like monosaccharides, disaccharides,lipids amino acids etc. etc


7. This molecule is hydrophilic and is the subunit of the polymers starch,glycogen and cellulose

a. 4

b. 1

c. 8

d. 9

e. 5

 

8. When part of a protein, this molecule could be involved in hydrophobicinteractions

a. 12

b. 9

c. 10

d. 4

e. 7

 

9. This is an important constituent of many, but no all, biological membranes.

a. 3

b. 4

c. 6

d. 5

e. 1

 

10. This molecule is known as "ordinary table sugar" and isnot a reducing sugar

a. 1

b. 2

c. 9

d.10

e. 3

 

11. When part of a protein, this molecule could be involved in disulfidebonds formation.

a. 11

b. 12

c. 10

d. 9

e. 4

 

12. This molecule is an important part of all biological membranes

a. 4

b. 5

c. 6

d. 1

e. 2

 

13. A glycoprotein is composed of, at least in part, of these two molecules.

a. 1 and 12

b. 1 and 9

c. 9 and 2

d. 10 and 4

e. 1 and 10


14. Which of the following is not a property of biological membranes?

a. integral membrane proteins can change relative positions in the membrane

b. because proteins are essentially hydrophilic they cannot penetratefrom one side of the membrane through to the other side

c. they have a phospholipid bilayer arrangement

d. the exact chemical composition of a membrane is dependent upon thefunction of that membrane

e. the components of membranes must have the ability to move, a processthat is termed "fluidity".

 

15. The process of facilitated diffusion is different from simple diffusion in which of the following properties?

a. only simple diffusion can be considered an exergonic reaction

b. simple diffusion does not refer to the movement of material acrossa membrane

c. facilitated diffusion requires an integral membrane protein to assist the transport of a substance across the membrane but simple diffusion doesnot

d. simple diffusion involves the movement of only hydrophilic material across the plasma membrane

e. since water is hydrophilic it can cross the plasma membrane only throughthe process of facilitated diffusion.

 

16 Which of the following statements concerning active transport is correct?

a. because substances are being transported against a concentration gradient,all of the reactions that are mediated by the Na+- K+ ATPase are endergonic.

b. it is a process whereby substances are transport across a membrane against a concentration gradient of that substance.

c. integral membrane proteins are not involved in active transport

d. the energy of diffusion is used to drive the transport process

e. Only Na+ ion and K+ ions are transported by the process of activetransport.

 

model of H+ Cl- ion accumulation in lumen of stomach

model of antiport

17. Which of the following substances is passing through the plasma membraneby the process of simple diffusion?

a. HCO3-

b. Cl-

c. H+

d. CO2

e. ATP

 

18. Which of the following substances is passing through the plasma membraneby the process of active transport?

a. CO2

b. Cl-

c. ATP

d. HCO3-

e. H+

 

19. Which of the following substances is passing though the plasma membrane by the process of facilitated diffusion?

a. CO2

b. H+

c. Cl-

d. H2O

e. ATP

 

20. Which of the following is an antiport?

a. Cl- ion permease

b. anion-exchange protein

c. ATP dependent H+ pump

d. basolateral membrane

e. apical membrane

 

21. Which of the following statements concerning the concentrations of H+, Cl-, CO2 and HCO3- is not correct?

a. the concentration of Cl- ion in the cytoplasm of the cell is higherthan in the lumen of the stomach.

b. the concentration of H+ in the lumen of the stomach is higher thanin the cytoplasm of the cell.

c. the concentration of CO2 in the blood is higher than in the cytoplasmof the cell.

d. the concentration of Cl- in the blood is higher than in the cytoplasmof the cell.

e. The concentration of HCO3- is lower in the blood than in the cytoplasmif the cell.

 

22. Endocytosis and exocytosis have which of the following properties in common?

a. the use of cell surface receptors

b. membrane fusion

c. in both cases substances are transported down a concentration gradient

d. in both cases substances are transported against a concentration gradient

e. both processes use the energy derived from diffusion

 

23. Which of the following is a property of both pinocytosis and receptor mediated endocytosis?

a. the plasma membrane fuses to form an intracellular vesicle

b. cell surface receptor proteins are used in both processes.

c. in both processes, any dissolved substance that is found outside ofthe cell can be transported into the cell.

d. in both processes substances are transported against a concentrationgradient

e. both processes are responsible for transporting substances out ofthe cell.

24. During the intracellular metabolism of cholesterol in liver cells a vesicle is formed that is named the Compartment for the Uncoupling of Receptor and Ligand. What biological principle is demonstrated in the functioning of this vesicle?

a. all intracellular vesicles are composed of plasma membrane

b. all intracellular vesicles contain ATP dependent proton pumps

c. hydrophobic substances must enter the cell through receptor ligandinteractions

d. protein-protein interactions can be affected by pH

e. all intracellular vesicles are part of the endomembrane system.

 

25. Which of the following is not a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

a. storage and release of Ca++ ions in skeletal muscle cells

b. lipid metabolism

c. detoxification of some poisons in liver cells

d. site of peroxidase activity

e. cholesterol metabolism

 

26. Which of the following organelles is not considered part of the endomembranesystem?

a. secretory vesicles

b. rough endoplasmic reticulum

c. golgi apparatus

d. microbodies

e. lysosomes

 

Use the following figure to answer the next four questions

see lecture notes on fertilization of sea urchine egg

 

27. Which of the following statements concerning the acrosomal vesicleis correct?

a. the contents of the acrosomal vesicle are released to the outsideof the cell by endocytosis

b. one protein in the acrosomal vesicle is a proton pump

c. the contents of the acrosomal vesicles were probably synthesized onthe rough endoplasmic reticulum

d. the acrosomal membrane does not fuse with the plasma membrane

e. during their synthesis, the acrosomal proteins never possessed a signalsequence.

 

28. The part of the sperm that would have the highest concentration ofdynein ATPase activity is the

a. plasma membrane

b. acrosome

c. nucleus

d. chloroplast

e. flagella

 

29. The f-actin is formed from the polymerization of...

a. microtubules

b. profilin

c. g-actin

d. intermediate filament

e. kinesins

 

30. The part of the sperm cell that has the highest concentration ofmicrotubules is the...

a. flagella

b. acrosome

c. mitochondria

d. plasma membrane

e. nucleus

 

31. Which of the following proteins does not have ATPase activity?

a. proton pump

b. kinesin

c. dynein

d. Na+- glucose symport

e. Na+ - K+ ATPase

 

32. Microtubules are characterized by all of the following except

a. they are composed of tubulins

b. they are involved in intracellular movement

c. they are involved in axonal transport

d. they are involved in chromosome movement

e. they are composed of actin

 

33. The function of tight junctions is to .

a. to keep adjacent cells from separating from each other

b. prevent material from passing through the spaces between adjacentcells

c. to aid in the intracellular transport of mitochondria and other organelles

d. prevent the formation of multilayered tissues

e. to make it easier to put on jeans

 

34. Which of the following statements concerning gap junctions is notcorrect?

a. they are composed of integral membrane proteins

b. they result in the formation of a syncytium for the movement of smallmolecules.

c. they are used for the intercellular transport of mitochondria andother organelles

d. small molecules can pass from one cell to the next without going throughthe plasma membranes.

e. the opening of gap junctions is controlled by Ca++ ion concentration.

 

 

35. is a structure composed of material from adjacent cells and havingthe function of keeping the cells from be separated from each other.

a. desmosomes

b. hemidesmosomes

c. tight junctions

d. gap junctions

e. glycocaylx

 

Use the following figure to answer the next five questions

figure of endomembrane system

36. Secretory proteins would be found here.

a. 7

b. 1

c. 8

d. 3

e. 5

 

37. The sorting of secretory proteins from lysosome bound proteins occurshere.

a. 1

b. 5

c. 6

d. 2

e. 4

 

38. Proteins destined for the mitochondria would probably notbe synthesized here.

a. 4

b. 8

c. 5

d. 3

e. 1

 

39. Plasma membrane proteins could be glycosylated here.

a. 3, 4

b. 3, 5

c. 1, 7

d. 2, 8

e. 1, 6

 

40. Actin would probably be synthesized here.

a. 1

b. 3

c. 7

d. 2

e. 8