I. electromagnetic radiation
a. x-rays and gamma rays.
cause breaks in phosphodiester bonds and result chromosome mutations like inversions, translocation, duplications and deficiencies
b. ultra-violet light (UV)
causes formation of pyrimidine dimers (TT and CC) resulting in point mutations.
DNA sequence must have adjacent pyrimidines inorder for dimers to form.
(see laboratory note book for details)
a. that modify nitrogenous bases
b. base analogues
c. intercalating agents
d. inserting DNA
e. testing form chemical mutagens (Ames test)