Dr. Friedman

E-mail: x.friedman@worldnet.att.net

Consumer Behavior Study Sheet


Situational variable: physical surroundings, social surroundings, time (temporal perspective), task definition, antecedent states. Psychological blocks, Index of Consumer Sentiment, price-quality relationships, surrogate indicators, price-sensitivity model.
Environmental Influences: culture, social class, personal influence, family, situation.
Individual Differences: consumer resources; motivation and involvement; knowledge; attitudes; personality, values, and lifestyle.
Decision Process: Need recognition, search for information, pre-purchase alternative evaluation, purchase, consumption, outcomes (post-consumption alternative evaluation), divestment.
Information Processing: Exposure, attention, comprehension, acceptance, retention.
Extended Problem Solving (EPS), Midrange Problem Solving, Limited Problem Solving.
Repeated problem solving, habitual decision making, inertia, impulse buying.
1. Need Recognition: actual state - desired state
2. Search: internal search vs. external search, dimensions of search: degree, direction, and sequence.
3. Pre-Purchase Alternative Evaluation: evaluative criteria, salient attributes, determinant attributes. Determining choice alternatives: awareness set, evoked set, inept set, inert set. Evaluation of alternatives: Decision rules, lexicographic, conjunctive, disjunctive, compensatory rules.
4. Purchase: fully planned purchase, partially planned purchase, unplanned purchase.
5. Consumption & Outcomes: sacred consumption, profane consumption, ritual, compulsive consumption, expectancy disconfirmation model.
6. Divestment: outright disposal, recycling, remarketing.

Motives and Motivation, goal, positive & negative motives, conscious motives, manifest and latent motives, motivational conflict (approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, approach-avoidance), Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, motivation research.
Personality, Freud (id, ego, superego, unconscious, anxiety, dream symbols, defense mechanisms), Jung, Adler (inferiority complex), Horney (compliant, aggressive, detached), McClelland (achievement, affiliation, and power motivation), Berne (transactional analysis-parent, adult, child ego states). Trait theory, personality inventory tests such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--MMPI. Innovativeness and personality tests: consumer innovativeness, dogmatism, optimum stimulation level (measured by sensation seeking scale), novelty seeking scale. Other scales: consumer susceptibility to personal influence, consumer ethnocentrism scale.
Self concept: actual self-image, ideal self-image, social self-image, ideal social self-image, expected self-image.
Lifestyle, psychographics,AIO, general AIOs, specific AIOs. VALS2: fulfilleds, believers, actualizers, achievers, strivers, strugglers, experiencers, makers.

Information Processing:
1. Exposure- thresholds, difference threshold=just noticeable difference ("JND"). subliminal perception, Weber's law.
2. Attention- Determinants of Attention: size, color, intensity, contrast, position, directionality, movement, isolation, novelty, "learned" stimuli, attractive spokesperson.
3. Comprehension- Principles of Stimulus Organization: Simplicity, figure and ground, closure, proximity, similarity. Order effects, recency vs. primacy, miscomprehension,
4. Acceptance-- support arguments and counterarguments.
5. Retention- left-side of brain vs. right-side of brain. Multiple-store theory of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, transfer times, rehearsal, elaboration, chunking, decay interference. color as a marketing tool, symbolism.
Perceived risk: performance risk, financial risk, time risk, physical risk, psychological risk, social risk.

Learning: cognitive approach vs. behaviorist approach. cognitive approach: rehearsal and elaboration. Methods to enhance retention: pictures, concrete vs. abstract words, self-referencing, mnemonic devices, time-compressed speech, repetition. Recognition vs. recall. Classical conditioning, stimulus generalization vs. discrimination, Operant conditioning, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, continuous vs. partial reinforcement, immediate vs. delayed reinforcer, primary vs. secondary reinforcer, shaping, Vicarious learning. Involvement: Zaichkowsky's Personal Involvement Inventory. High-involvement media vs. low-involvement media. Elaboration Likelihood Model--Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion, Social Judgment theory (assimilation/contrast). Measuring brand loyalty, brand switching matrix.
Attitudes-- direction, degree, intensity of attitudes, attitude-behavior relationship, measuring attitudes (action, target, time, and/or contextual elements). Cognitive, affective, and conative components of an attitude. Multi-Attribute Attitude Models (Martin Fishbein's work)-- Attitude-Toward-Behavior Model: Ab = Sbiei bi is strength of the belief that an ith specific action will lead to a specific outcome (likely/unlikely; probable/improbable) and ei is the evaluation of the ith outcome (good/bad).
B ~ B.I. = [Ab] w1 + [SNBjMCj]w2 NB is normative belief and MC is motivation to comply.

Attitude Change Strategies: (1) Change the basic motivational function: utilitarian function, ego-defensive function, value-expressive function, knowledge function, social adjustment function.
(2) Associate product with an admired group or event. (3) Change beliefs about competitor's brands.
(4) Altering components of the multi-attribute model (change ei ; change bi; add a new attribute).
Cognitive dissonance theory, postpurchase dissonance, attribution theory, internal vs. external attributions.
Internal locus of control individuals vs. external locus of control individuals.
Self-serving bias in attributions, actor-observer bias, defensive attribution, self-perception theory.
Testing attributions: distinctiveness, consistency over time, consistency over modality, consensus, perceived decision freedom, and perceived behavioral desirability. Effects of bogus physiological feedback, overjustification effects, discounting principle.
Communication and Persuasion: encoding, decoding, sender, receiver, medium, message.
components of source credibility: trustworthiness, expertise, similarity, likeability, attractiveness and dynamism. Sleeper effect. Message strategies: one-sided vs. two-sided messages, inoculation treatment, order effects, distraction, fear appeals, humor, sex, and comparative advertising.
The Receiver: intelligence, self-esteem, sex, authoritarianism, and dogmatism.
Behavior Modification Techniques: prompting, foot-in-the door, door-in-the-face, reciprocity, commitment, labeling, reactance theory, incentives, and "even a penny will help."
Personal influence: reference group, opinion leader, membership vs. symbolic groups.
Social Power: reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power, expert power.
Processes of social influence: compliance, identification, and internalization.
3 forms of reference group influence: normative compliance, value-expressive function, and informational influence. Types of reference groups: contactual group, disclaimant group, (anticipatory) aspirational group, (symbolic) avoidance group. Measurement of opinion leadership: self-designating method, sociometric method, key informant method, objective method. Trickle-down theory, two-step flow of communication theory, and Multistep flow of communication theory.
Family: family of orientation, family of procreation, consumer socialization. Family roles: influencer, gatekeeper, decider, buyer, preparer, user, maintainer, disposer. Wife-dominant products, husband-dominant, syncratic (joint), autonomic; family life cycle.
Social Class: measurement of SC using objective measures, single-variable indexes, composite variable indexes. Warner's Index of Social Characteristics, SES (Socioeconomic Status Score), Coleman's Computerized Status Index. Social classes: UU, LU, UM, LM, UL, LL. Geodemographic clustering (PRIZM)
Culture: measurement of culture, content analysis, observational fieldwork, value measurement survey instruments (Rokeach Value survey). Yankelovich Monitor, DYG SCAN, core values.Subcultures.