You've finished collecting information about your topic and
organized (or planned) how you are going to present your material. It's
time to start writing.
You may be someone who finds it easier to start by
introduction, or you may be someone who prefers to jump right
into your topic and write the introduction later. But no matter
which type of writer you are, sooner or later you have to write the
There is no one right way to begin a research paper;
many ways to begin. However, when
you are writing research papers in other courses and disciplines, your
instructor may assign a particular type of introduction. But for
your research paper in this course, you are free to choose the type of
The following list identifies various kinds--but not all
with examples taken from student papers. The examples cover a wide
range of topics; most, however,
are about Brooklyn.
vary in length: some introductions consist of only a
few sentences, and one introduction consists of several paragraphs.
I. Identify why your topic is important or
whether to the general public, to a specific group, or in a particular
Dr. Mary Dixon Jones
One of the most interesting trials in Brooklyn in the
nineteenth century was that of Dr. Mary Dixon Jones in 1890. Hailed by
many today as a pioneer in the field of gynecology, Dr. Jones, the
manager and founder of the Brooklyn Women's Hospital, was attacked from
February to May of 1889 almost daily in the Brooklyn Eagle with
allegations of manslaughter, murder and abortion. With all its articles
attacking Dr. Jones in 1889, the Brooklyn Eagle was able to
successfully convince many of the public of her
guilt, causing a frenzy of accusations against her, and resulting in
her being tried for manslaughter in 1890. Her 1892 lawsuit
against the Eagle for its accusations was the longest-running
libel case in the history of the United States to date (Morantz 3). To
understand why the attack
of the Brooklyn Eagle was so
successful requires an understanding of the perceptions of women,
women's health, politics and the rivalry between Brooklyn's two largest
newspapers in the late nineteenth century.
A Pioneer of American Islam
Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb was the first American
to convert to Islam. He went from the U.S., appointed as a Consul
General, to the Philippines and returned as a Muslim missionary eager
to spread Islam in America. This was not an easy task as the West
looked down upon Islam (Turner 63-64). Due to lack of funds Webb was
never able to fully accomplish his goals. He also faced social problems
due to opposition from personal enemies in his mission of spreading
awareness about Islam in the Unites States. However he broke new ground
in the process of presenting and bettering the image of Islam because
of his Euro-American ethnicity. Even though Webb did not accomplish all
of his practical aims, he was successful in leaving a significant mark
that opened the gates of America to Islam.
II. Indicate the purpose of your paper, i.e., what you
demonstrate or prove.
Eastern European Jewish
East Side to Brooklyn
As the location of one of the
oldest and largest Jewish
communities, New York State contains about one-third of the total
number of United States Jews. Currently, New York City remains the
target home for new Jewish immigrants to the United States including
Israeli, Iranian, and Russian Jews. New York is currently viewed as
both the cultural and organizational haven for the American Jewish
community. The most renowned boroughs of New York that contain the rich
history of Jewish immigration and cultural development include both the
Lower East Side and Brooklyn. We can better understand the Jewish
culture and history, by following their steps from their original
countries, to Manhattan's Lower East Side, and finally to Brooklyn,
where they maintain their title as the predominant and most
culturally diverse group to enter the U.S.
Freud and the Unconscious
Before Sigmund Freud, most
experiences influenced behavior in human beings, that humans were fully
aware of internal and external activities causing them to behave in
certain ways. But after Freud, they started to seriously think
about the unconscious mind. However, Freud believed that the
unconscious mind made up most of our mental activity.
III. If you are discussing one event, like the
Shirtwaist Factory Fire or the attack on Pearl Harbor, you may start by
the details of the event.
The Maybee Murders
At exactly four in the afternoon on October 19, 1883,
the most diabolic and heinous murders that ever occurred in Brookville,
Queens County took the lives of two women. That dark and gloomy
afternoon Mrs. Lydia Maybee and her daughter Miss Annie Maybee were
both brutally killed, and Mr. Garret Maybee, father and husband, was
left paralyzed, blind, and deaf, all at the hands of a crazed killer
IV. You may give the historical background of an
The Consolidation of Brooklyn into
Greater New York City
In 1623 Dutch traders landed on Manhattan Island, and
settled in Breuckelen, or Brooklyn. From 1646 until 1776, Brooklyn was
ruled by the Dutch and later the English as part of the thirteen
colonies. In 1776, the thirteen colonies declared their independence
from the English. On April 8th, 1834, Brooklyn was granted a city
charter by the state of New York. The idea of consolidating Brooklyn
and New York City so that Brooklyn would be a borough of New York City
had first begun in 1816 (http:// www.meny.org/Exhibitions/ GNY/
timeline.htm). Attempts to consolidate Brooklyn to become a borough of
New York City did not progress until 1890. The opinions of the people
at the time of consolidation greatly changed over the course of the
years before its passage. Consolidation was achieved in such a way that
by the time it occurred, it was no longer supported by New Yorkers who
were its original supporters. In addition, Brooklynites, originally
against consolidation, became its ultimate supporters. Consolidation
was finally achieved in 1898.
V. Identify the relationship your paper will describe,
which may be a relationship between two people, two groups, or an
individual and an object or goal, such as the relationship between a
creator and the creation, a love relationship, a goal and its
The Brooklyn Eagle and
Brooklyn, a place that was once known as "the city of
and churches," possessed an identity that was one of a kind. It was not
only a city of homes and churches, but also one of schools, musical
institutions, libraries, and most importantly, The Brooklyn Eagle.
The Brooklyn Eagle was the daily newspaper whose heart and soul was
focused on Brooklyn. While the Eagle only existed between the
years of 1841 and 1955, these one hundred and fourteen years of its
existence were very memorable. The Eagle not only served its
community as a publication that received and relayed information, but
also served it as a friend. The community and the paper were reliant on
each other; they reached out to one another in times of need and
supported each other throughout their time together. The Eagle
helped build Brooklyn and Brooklyn helped build the Eagle. In
the Pictorial History of Brooklyn, Martin H Weyrauch said,
"Newspapers and communities grow side by side, they are in the truest
sense interdependent" (45). An understanding of the history of the Eagle
proved the words of Weyrauch to be correct. The Eagle really
lived through and with Brooklyn; it thrived when Brooklyn was at its
height and died when Brooklyn was in a state of decline (Schroth 259).
As its heart and soul was on Brooklyn, Brooklyn's heart was on the Eagle,
and when it died, Brooklyn grieved.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution and
The theory of evolution and natural selection was
the world by Charles Darwin in the year of 1859. This theory set off a
bitter controversy because it contracted the Biblical explanation that
God created the earth and all the creatures of the earth in seven days.
VI. Identify a general principle or universal truth
connect your topic to it.
The Student Movement of the 1930's
Youthful movements have historically been the instruments of
change. The student movement of the 1930's was not an exception. The
radicalism which eventually characterized the decade began in New York
City, and soon spread to colleges all over the United States. The most
fascinating aspect of the student movement was not its power, its
prestige, or its effects, but its existence: the fact that a normal
student could comprehend and use that understanding to attempt to
influence his or her world.
VII. Explain your personal attachment to or your
Woman Suffrage in the Late Nineteenth
Three generations of women comprise my household. There
men to lift the heavy boxes or change the light bulbs when they go out.
If a door handle breaks or a cupboard needs to be nailed, I can rest
assured that my grandmother will find a way to get the carpentry done.
We depend on each other to do all the `manly' jobs around our apartment
(and in our lives in general), which has molded us into independent,
self-sufficient and very competent individuals. Our society by no means
sees us as anomaly as there are numerous women doing the same in our
times. So many of us go out into the workforce to support our families
while ensuring that love and attention is ever present in our
households. The woman of the twenty-first century is a pillar of
strength for her family members, a source of love and understanding and
a true hero to many. She can drive a car, become an engineer or
mechanic, wear a pantsuit and still not have anything taken away from
her womanhood. She can be both homemaker and career woman while
ensuring that a balance is kept between the two. She has indeed come a
As I walked along Fulton Street for the first time in
help but feel apprehensive. My friend had attempted to allay my fears
by telling me that it was not as had as people made it out to be and
since she was from the neighborhood I felt slightly less petrified. For
her it was home, a place that she felt safe and welcomed. As we walked
and I observed her stopping to chat with neighbors, I was able to get a
sense of the nature of the relationships that existed in the community.
However, the abandoned buildings that clotted the landscape, some of
them burnt out and nearly all of them the canvases of graffiti artists
told the story that I was more familiar with – that of degradation.
Even though I am not from America, the name Bedford-Stuyvesant (better
known as Bed-Stuy to the locals) is infamous, and even before ever
setting foot there, I had heard tales of it as a place that was crime
ridden, poverty stricken and generally unwholesome.
The ethnic composition of Bedford-Stuyvesant was
to me at first blush. Coming from the Caribbean where black people are
the predominant race, I am accustomed to seeing many black people in
one place and the streets of Bedford-Stuyvesant are filled with them.
However, when looked at from a larger perspective there was something
strange about this area. Compared to the rest of Brooklyn, there is a
much greater concentration of black people than anywhere else and I
could not help thinking that that had something to do with the area's
bad reputation. 1 would not only come to find out that my assumptions
were correct but also, even more astonishingly, that the area known as
Bedford-Stuyvesant was once a sought after place to live–by white
people–and described by realtors as "one of the finest residential
sections of the community" (Connolly 121). The question of what
happened between then and now is not an easy one to answer. In fact
there is no single reason that can be truly pinpointed as the cause for
the region's decline; rather, it is the combined effect of several
factors that is responsible for the ghetto that today we call
VIII. Explain why you find the topic interesting or
chose the topic.
Bill Gates: Microsoft's Achievement
Microsoft Corporation is the leading company in the computer
software market. There are more than 80 million personal computers in
use worldwide, and most of them use MS-DOS,1 a Microsoft
program which allows people to use English-like language to communicate
with the computer. Though this giant of the software industry was
formed in 1975 by William H. Gates and his classmate Paul Allen, it was
largely unknown until early 80's. The company is now worth over $10
billion.2 Last year alone brought record profits of
$1,843.4 billion.3 Many people, including me, wonder
how the management of the Microsoft has achieved such outstanding
results. Intrigued by that question, I began searching for the answers.
I found that there is no single answer to that question; many factors
have contributed to the company's success.
1 Microsoft, MS-DOS and
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Apple and
Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computers, Inc.
2 Charles Moritz, 1991 Current
Biography Yearbook, (New York: The H.W. Wilson Company,1991): 237.
3 Microsoft Corportiona 1991 Annual
IX. Discuss why someone might want to read your paper.
example, what might the reader learn?
Washington Carver: The Shaping of a Young Chemurgist
George Washington Carver was one of the world's
and foremost chemurgists. He was a scientist who experimented with
organic raw materials, mainly agricultural materials, to develop new
industrial products. The organic materials which Carver experimented
with ranged from sweet potatoes, soybeans, cotton stalks, and, most
notably, peanuts. Peanuts were the main raw materials from which the
majority of products were developed. Carver is widely known for these
discoveries, but most people do not know the story of how he was
disciplined at any early age.
April 15, 2008