You have investigated three hypotheses as to the origin of major landforms of the NYC region:|
It is important to note that it is quite acceptable for you to conclude that, for a given N.Y.C. landform, (a) more than one hypothesis has good evidence to support it and (b) that you have no way to choose between them, given the available data.
| For example, the gently sloping plain in southern Brooklyn is underlain by loose, well-sorted layers of sediment that are inclined gently towards the south. Moreover, the layers are parallel to the surface of the land. |
Thus, the gently sloping plain in southern Brooklyn satisfies the tests applied for both the hypothesis of deposition and the hypothesis of deformation, as explained below.
Geologists are commonly faced with the dilemma of several seemingly equally well-supported hypotheses. In this case, to decide between the hypotheses of deposition and deformation, additional tests (predictions) need to be devised. To do so requires a knowledge of processes and materials beyond the scope of this course. |
What is important for you:
WHAT YOU NEED TO DO:
|WHAT GEOLOGISTS HAVE CONCLUDED
After completing your evaluation and comparison of hypotheses, you will have found that on the basis of the information provided, the origin of two of the four NYC landforms under discussion remains "open to question". Geologists, however, in response to a more extensive data base than is provided in these exercises, consider the origin of all of the four NYC landforms under discussion "uncontroversial". How they have decided that the two "open to question" landforms are, in their eyes, "uncontroversial", and which hypotheses they have accepted, is considered in "THE LANDFORMS OF NEW YORK CITY - PART V".