Governor Henry Ellis' Plan, May 5, 1763
 
Hints Relative to the Division and Government of the Conquered and Newly Acquired Countries in America

The Country call'd Canada is of such vast Extent, that, for the greater Convenience of governing its Inhabitants there seems to be a Necessity of dividing  it into two Provinces at least, and of establishing in each a distinct Government.

Quebec, of Course, should be the Capital of the Lower province, comprehending the Isle of Orleans, the Settlements on the South Eastern Banks of St. Lawrence to a certain Distance, and all the Territory on the North West Side of that River, lying to the Eastward of Trois Rivieres.

Montreal might with equal propriety be made the Capital of the Upper province, which may include not only that Tract of Land between Lake Champlain and St. Lawrence but likewise all the Country on the North West Side of that River above Trois Rivieres.

The Civil Government of these Provinces would be best administered for some time, by a Governor & Council only, who should be vested with the same legislative  powers which have been conferred on the General Assemblies in those provinces where the Royal Government has been settled in it's greatest purity; and when Circumstances are so much changed as to render it expedient His Majesty may indulge His new Subjects in that part of the World with Representatives in General Assembly which would at once convert what before was a Despotic Government Into one of Liberty.

In regard to the Ecclesiastical Establishment in Canada there occurs but two Methods of putting that upon any tolerable footing; One is to make no immediate Alteration, but let the regular Clergy of the several Communities now subsisting there gradually die off,  without suffering them to be replaced, and then such of the Canadians, as may still adhere to Popery, the same Indulgence as is allowed  His Majestyís Roman Catholick Subjects Ireland, who by the Capitulation of Limerick were in similar Circumstances.

The other Method is, to take the Revenue of the regular Clergy  immediately into the Hand of Government and to allow to the individuals of which those' Communities are composed, Stipends or Pensions for life and Permission to exercise their religious Functions only as secular Priests -  With respect to the Secular Clergy: They, it is conceived, may, without any great Inconvenience be permitted to continue on their usual Footing.

As every part of the British Dominions however circumstanced should be under some Jurisdiction or other, it is proposed, that all the Southern Coast of Labradore,  all Hudson's Streights,  from the Island of Anticosti to Hudsonís Streights, may be annexed to the Newfoundland Government  and that in order effectually to assert our Right to that Coast an Establishment be immediately formed upon it, at or near the the Straights of  Belleisle,  where there are many commodious Harbors formerly resorted to by the French and Esquimeaux, for the purposes of Traffick and Fishing.

It might also be necessary to fix upon some Line for a Western Boundary to our ancient provinces, beyond which our People should not at present be permitted to settle, hence as their Numbers increased, they would emigrate to Nova Scotia, or  to the provinces on the Southern Frontier, where they would be useful to their Mother Country, instead of planting  themselves in the Heart of America, out of the reach of Government, and where, from the great Difficulty of procuring European Commodities, they would be compelled to commence Manufacturs to the infinite prejudice of Britain.

All the Country to the Westward of this Boundary  may be put under the immediate Protection and Care of the Officers commanding at the distant posts. But as many of the King's Subjects will necessarily have Occasion to go beyond this Line for Trade and  other purposes and may have Disputes among themselves, or with the Indians, it would be proper that the Decision of such Differences, and indeed, that all Matters cognizable by Law should be reserved to the Civil Power  in any of the Neighboring provinces.

The Island of St. John in the Gulph of  St  Lawrence, and Isle Royal which are so near to Nova Scotia, should  be united to it forthwith, and made a part of that Government.

Georgia, which  is at present of too narrow Limits ever to become a flourishing Province, should be extended Southward to the River St. Marys, and a Line running Westward from thence to St. Mark's in the Bay of Apelache,  would be a proper  Boundary on  that Side.

All the Peninsula Southward of this Line ought to be comprized  in the Province of Florida, and the Country situated between St. Mark's and the River Mississippi, should be formed into another province.

Perhaps the very best Mode Government for these new provinces, which 'tis  likely, will be settled either by foreign Protestants or  the King's natural born Subjects who are intitled to British Liberty,  would be that of Georgia or Nova Scotia  which has been the latest formed, is the freest from  a Republican Mixture, and the most conformable  to the British Constitution of any that obtains amongst our Colonies in North America, and might therefore be adopted at once, without any material Alteration.

Granado, the Grandadillo's  & St. Vincent's may be put under one Government which may be exactly similar to that of  the Leeward Islands, unless, on account of the Number of French already settled upon them, it should be thought more advisable to adopt the Plan proposed for the Government of the Canadian Provinces.

As Tobago is itself a considerable island entirely unsettled and lying  at a Distance from the Others, it may, with propriety either have a particular Government of it's [sic] own or continue as it is, united to that of Barbados, with which it's future Inhabitants can have an easy intercourse, by means of the Trade Winds, a Convenience which they could nor have with respect to Granado, were they connected with that  Government.

The Island of Dominica  so detached from the King's other Possessions in those Parts, and lying in the Center of the French Sugar Islands  may be made a separate and Perhaps a military Government  at least for the present.

The Fort  at Senegal which is not of more Importance than that at Gambia, or those on the Gold Coast  may, in time of  peace at least, be put under the Direction of the African Committee in the same Manner as the other Forts are in that Quarter, and it  would be extremely proper to have a small Establishment immediately at Portlandie, were it only as a Mark of Possession and Right to that part of the Gum Coast, which, otherwise may one Time, be usurped by the French.