EXAM | FALL, 1999
HISTORY 19 | RELIGIOUS STUDIES 19
NOTE: The exam will take place on Tuesday, December 14, from 1:00 to 3:00 p.m. in our classroom, 518 Whitehead. It is an open book exam. You may also refer to notes but be sure to write your exams in class. This exam is in two parts. Part II is on a separate sheet.
an essay on ONE of the following questions.
Be sure to draw explicitly on appropriate readings. For grades
above C, you must use and refer to specific readings. The essays will be
evaluated in part on how well you use course materials.
1. “The historical Jesus,
although shadowy and elusive, has been the recurring corrective to
distortions of the Christ of faith in the development of the Christian
tradition.” Explain and discuss your agreement or disagreement.
Discuss the image of Jesus that you believe has made the most positive contribution to western civilization and the image that has
had the most negative effect.
Write a comparison of Paul, Augustine, Luther and Jefferson (use
the documents in the Reader) on the connection between their images of
Jesus and their views of human nature. You can write the essay either in
dialogue form [like a play] or as an essay.
Explain and discuss the division of western Christianity into
Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
In what ways do you find Christianity in the modern world to be
most different from Christianity in the Patristic age? Use at least two
sources from each age in your discussion.
PART II [60%]Choose four of the following source excerpts and discuss BRIEFLY their significance for the history of Christianity, placing them in historical context [who, where, when], connecting them to major issues and topics in the development of Christianity.What do they reveal about their authors and periods? Be sure to draw on both Chadwick and Pelikan. All excerpts are from the Xerox reader except #5.
1. Augustine of Hippo, Letter
2. Rule of Saint Benedict
Individual desires have no place in the
monastery and neither r inside .nor outside the walls should anyone
presume to argue with the abbot. If he dares do so, he should be
punished according to the Rule. The abbot himself must do everything
according to the Rule and fearing God, knowing that he will be held
accountable for his reign to the highest judge, God. The abbot should
take counsel of the seniors alone in minor matters in the monastery for
"Do all things with counsel, and you shall not regret it
afterwards" (Eccles. 32:24).
Second Council of Nicea
4. The Little Flowers of Saint Francis
Moreover, as Christ came not only to serve people with
leprosy, healing and cleansing them in body, but He also wished to die
for them, sanctifying and cleansing them in their soul, so St. Francis,
longing to be entirely conformed to Christ, used to serve victims of
leprosy with very great affection, giving them food, washing their sore
limbs, cleaning and washing their clothes, and, moreover, frequently and
fervently giving them kisses. And so it happened many times that God by
His power simultaneously healed the soul of one whose body the Saint
healed, as we read of Christ.
5. Luther, Ninety-Five Theses
They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the
money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed
and avarice can be
increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of
Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or
lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and
passes him by, yet gives
his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's
Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions
of the indulgence
preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were
burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of
Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish
to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St.
Peter, to many of those
from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
Again, "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater
than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St.
Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor
COUNCIL OF TRENT
recognize the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church as the mother and
mistress of all churches; and I vow and swear true obedience to the
Roman Pontiff, the successor of blessed Peter, the chief of the
Apostles and the representative vicarius of Jesus Christ.
accept and profess, without doubting, the traditions, definitions and
declarations of the sacred Canons and Ecumenical Councils and especially
those of the holy Council of Trent; and at the same time I condemn,
reject and anathematize all things contrary thereto, and all heresies
condemned, rejected and anathematized by the Church. This true Catholic
Faith (without which no one can be in a state of salvation), which I at
this time I of my own will profess and truly hold.
Keshub Chunder Sen
“It is on the basis of the soteriological [soter = redeemer or saviour] meaning of the particularity of his Jewishness that theology must affirm the Christological significance of Jesus' dialectically present blackness. He is black because he was a Jew. The affirmation of the Black Christ can be understood when the significance of his past Jewishness is related dialectically to the significance of his present blackness On the other hand, the Jewishness of Jesus located him in the context of the Exodus, thereby connecting his appearance in Palestine with God's liberation of oppressed Israelites from Egypt. Unless Jesus were truly from Jewish ancestry, ii would make little theological sense to say that he is the fulfillment of God's covenant with Israel. But on the other hand, the blackness of Jesus brings out the soteriological meaning of his Jewishness for our contemporary situation when Jesus' person is understood in the content of the cross and resurrection. Without negating the divine election of Israel, the Cross and resurrection are Yahweh's fulfillment of his original intention for Israel. . . “
condition of Black people today reflects the cross of Jesus. Yet
the resurrection brings the hope that liberation from oppression is
immanent. The resurrected Black Christ signifies this hope.
. . . Cone
further argues that this Christological title, "The Black
. . . points to God’s universal will to liberate particular
oppressed people from inhumanity.
These particular oppressed peoples . . .are characterized in
Jesus's parable on the Last Judgment as "the least." “The
least in America are literally and symbolically present in Black
people." This notion of "the least" is attractive because
it descriptively locates the condition of Black women. .
Women share in the reality of a broader community.
They share race suffering with Black men; with white women and
other Third World women they are victims of sexism; and with poor Blacks
and whites, and other Third World peoples, especially women, they are
. . . Likewise, with Jesus Christ, there was an implied
universality which made him identify with others – the poor, the
woman, the stranger.