History 308
The Utrecht System
September 6, 2006

I. The Western Hemisphere and the 18th Century World

1. The European World in 1763 (international instability: the rise and fall of the Hapsburgs, Dutch; realpolitik in eastern and central Europe; the emergence of England and France; differing approaches to political economy—France and feudal system, emphasis on land power; England and overseas commerce; differing approaches to government: France and mixed system—three estates, unequal power; the British experiment—17th century civil wars, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy and “mixed government”; Spain and bureaucratic monarchy)

2. North America (strategic rivalries—Britain, France, and contrasting approaches to empire; Britain and mercantilism—Navigation Acts; Britain and salutary neglect, colonization for commerce and ideals; France and geopolitical goals—Louis XIV; 18th century wars and Western Hemisphere; lack of direct involvement by governing powers; role of Indian nations and North American diplomacy; significance of Iroquois, Creek; was there a North American international system?)

3. South and Central America (precolonial empires—Aztecs, Incas, and native imperialism; the colonial thrust—Spain, Portugal, and Treaty of Tortesillas; Hispanic America—mineral extraction and power of Spanish state, Spanish labor system, racial divisions; decline of Spanish power—mercantilist state, top-heavy bureaucracy, slave labor; 1750: Pombalian and Bourbon reforms)

III. A Hemisphere in Transition: The Utrecht System

1. Strategically (18th century wars and North America–colonies as bargaining chip: India, East Asia; Seven Years War and changing balance of power North America; France and decision to retain Haiti; decline of Indian nations and onset of treaty system; Spain and new international environment)

2. Economically (war and British economic theory; colonial transgressions—Honduras, Cuba, Caribbean trade—Boston, Baltimore; revival of mercantilism; asiento and its effects)

3. Ideologically (significance of Enlightenment; common sense of “Americanism”; interconnected nature of commerce and ideology—Adam Smith; similarities and differences among American colonies)