History 4698


January 31, 2002

I. The United States and the Mexican Revolution

1. The Mexican Revolution (Mexican background—politics and international relations; Diaz, the US, Europe, and the onset of revolution; causes of revolution—domestic and international, political or economic?; Madero and the United States; UK, Germany, and foreign intrigue; Taft and Henry Lane Wilson; coup and US response; what did the US want?; who in the US was making policy?; why did Taft not extend recognition?)

2. Wilson and Mexico (Mexico, $Diplomacy, and the 1912 election; historiographical debate: Clements vs. Smith—what was WW’s attitude toward international revolution?; determining the US interest in the revolutionary environment; Huerta’s political and economic choices; the US and the Constitutionalists—internal divisions Mexico, Wilson’s diplomatic strategy)

3. Denouement (Veracruz and the US constitutional debate; conservatives and protecting US nationals; the left and anti-imperialism; the long-term effects: role of force, redefining US interests, US and overseas private enterprise)

II. Debating War

1. The Outbreak of War (the European alliance system and the US; war tactics and US interests—loans, commerce; Wilson and domestic consensus; Lusitania, Sussex, and the resignation of Bryan; attacks by TR and Lodge; the war and domestic opinion)

2. Latin America and the Contradictions of Wilsonianism (the Pan-American Pact and the promise of internationalism; the Mobile address and Wilsonianism; the strategic realities of the Caribbean Basin; Wilson, the Navy, and race; intervention; Dominican Republic and the breakdown of customs receivership; origins of Dominican nationalism; intervention and US public opinion)

3. The Issues (the preparedness debate: Plattsburgers, progressivism, and military efficiency, peace progressives and traditional anti-militarism, Wilson and bureaucratic pressure, domestic pressure groups—AUAM, WILPF; war aims: concept of league of nations, LEP vs. progressive internationalists, US as revolutionary power, significance of Wilson—Peace without Victory, transnational coalition)

Reminder that M-Z have the caucus question for next class, when we continue our examination of Wilson.

Also, articles on foreign affairs, updated daily, are at:


Bruce Calder, The Impact of Intervention

Kendrick Clements, The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson

Friedrich Katz, The Secret War for Mexico

Arthur Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era

Hans Schmidt, The United States Occupation of Haiti

Robert Freeman Smith, The United States and Revolutionary Nationalism in Mexico

William Widenor, Henry Cabot Lodge and American Foreign Policy