History 4698

The Rise and Fall of the Alliance for Progress

March 28, 2002


I. The Collapse of the Alliance

1. Promise of the Alliance (Punta del Este and the promise of reform; differences between JFK and DDE; models—Chile, Venezuela; initial appropriations and the domestic coalition; the fraying of the Alliance: protecting economic interests, the Hickenlooper Amendment, the BGLA, and US business interests; international problems: Brazil and limits of reform; military coups and shadow of Cuba—Peru, Argentina; the question of military aid—what is the purpose of the Alliance?)

2. The Dominican coup (Trujillo, the US, and inter-American policy; Bosch as symbol of reform; Bosch as administrator; Bosch coup and choices for US; defection of Gruening and Morse, reconception by Edwin Martin; loss of left-wing support)

II. LBJ and Latin America: 1964

1. LBJ and Latin America (Johnson and Mexican-Americans—importance of border areas in Texas politics coalition; Longoria incident; Senate career and inter-American policy; views of Kennedy; significance of Mann appointment; continuity?)

2. Crises (LBJ reading of domestic politics; Panama: background—canal treaties and revisions, 1936 and 1956, Kennedy administration and renegotiating the treaty, Coffin appointment, outbreak of riots, LBJ response, negociar issue; Cuba: background—missile crisis and decline of Castro influence, continuation of MONGOOSE, Castro and nationalism, arrest of fisherman, administration internal divisions, Guantánamo issue; Brazil: background—postwar years and end of special relationship, Kubitschek and economic aid proposal, Quadros crisis; Goulart threat, coup and US response; legacy)

III. The Dominican Intervention

1. The Aftermath of the Coup (Wessin y Wessin and military government; LBJ appointments—Bennett and need to pacify Russell, Raborn and need to avoid McCone precedent; Raborn weaknesses; events of coup; LBJ decision to intervene; intelligence and political pressure—need for finding communists; OAS mediation; Balaguer)

2. The Legacy (RFK mission to Latin America; Frei and "Alliance That Lost Its Way"; 1967 Punta del Este resolution—triumph of Gruening)

Office Hours today, 11-12, Fayerweather 612

The third essay question has been posted on the web site.

Piero Gleijeses, The Dominican Intervention

Diane Kunz, Diplomacy of the Crucial Decade

Ruth Leacock, Requiem for Revolution

Robert Packenham, Liberal America and the Third World