History 4698

The Militarization of the Cold War

March 5, 2002

I. The Creation of the Cold War Consensus--continued

1. The Rationale for the Cold War (role of Congress: Democratic divisions and importance of Republicans; Vandenberg, Smith, HC Lodge—provide ideological justification; role of official class—Lovett, McCloy, Harriman, etc.; military)

2. Structural Change (National Security Act—creation of Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, CIA, NSC; establishment of national security state; contrasting visions of American role in world affairs)

3. Unresolved Issues (future of Germany—Kennan and possibility of unity under neutralism; importance of East Asia—MacArthur in Japan, US role in Chinese civil war; role of US government—federal role—retrenchment or permanent commitment?; the internal challenge—HUAC and different type of Cold War)

II. The Key Decisions

1. NSC 68 (changing definition of containment; increased pressure for militarization—Soviet A-Bomb, creation of NATO, spy scares; alternative explanations than May?; budget implications)

2. Korea (Korea and the postwar world; model for Germany; importance of Japan; decision to intervene; civil war or international conflict?; decision for limited war; Truman-MacArthur controversy; stalemate and national ambivalence; other East Asian initiatives—Seventh Fleet to Taiwan; reverse course Japan; military aid to France in Indochina; Great Crescent theory; domestic fallout—attacks against Acheson, growing power of military)

3. H-Bomb (legacy of arms control efforts—Acheson-Lilienthal Plan to Baruch Plan; AEC and principle of civilian control; role of McMahon and congressional pressure; opposition claims: length to construct, military use?, morality, psychological/diplomatic effect; Teller presumptions: USSR working intensively on weapon and will develop it; decision can’t be kept secret; Korea and HST decision)

4. Constitutional Uncertainty (President/Congress: NATO and Great Debate; decision to intervene Korea; President/Supreme Court: steel mill cases, communist cases; Congress/Supreme Court: HUAC and civil liberties)

  1950 1951 1952
Defense budget $13.3 B $60.4B $44 B
Army 591,000 1.55 million 1.595 million
Navy 451,000 1.01 million 1.05 million
Air Force 411,000 1.06 million 973,000

And, a list of possible IDs. Eight of these (plus two wild cards) will appear on the midterm, and you will have to do seven.

Article XI

Henry Lane Wilson

Emilio Aguinaldo


Richard Olney

B2H2 resolution

Prince Konoye


Cash and carry

Article XXI

Hoare-Laval pact

Nye Committee

Albert Burleson

Lake Mohonk meetings


Insular Cases

Pan-American pact

Algeciras conference

One World

Lytton commission


Montevideo accords

Paul Nitze

A.T. Mahan

George Kennan

Four-Power Treaty

Olney Manifesto

Cordell Hull

Lodge Corollary

W. Jennings Bryan

Henry Wallace

Teller amendment

Mobile address

Peace without Victory speech

Atlantic Charter

Iran crisis

Josiah Strong

King amendment

Roosevelt Corollary

Dawes Plan

Russell Buhite, The Origins of the Cold War in East Asia

Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War

John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment

Michael Hogan, Cross of Iron

Ernest May, Interpreting America’s Cold War Strategy

James Patterson, Mr. Republican

Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan

Thomas Schwartz, America’s Germany

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