||Council of Four from the Paris Peace Conference: from
left to right, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of
France, Wilson of the United States.
|President Wilson expected World War I to usher in an
era "safe for democracy." But his peacemaking efforts
illustrated the tensions in democratic foreign policymaking. Abroad, the
likes of Lloyd George, Clemenceau, and Orlando pressed Wilson to support
a hard-line peace against Germany. At home, the likes of
Gronna demanded a peace settlement more in line with their view of
traditional American ideals. The result: a peace treaty that compromised
Wilson's ideals and then failed to win approval from the Senate.
We'll be reading four documents for today's class: the clearest
elucidation of Wilson's postwar vision, the 14 Points address; the
League of Nations covenant (read it all once, but focus on Articles 10,
11, 15, and 16); and a sampling of the debate over the Versailles
Treaty, which set up the League.
Europe before the war
Europe after Versailles
to course schedule