History 308

The Latin American Revolutions and Hemispheric Affairs

September 4, 2001


I. The Haitian Revolution

1. Toussaint and the Great Powers (Haiti and the French Revolution; the emergence of Toussaint; murky status of Haiti; British invasion; French ambivalence—divisions between planter class and Paris government; US—military aid to quasi-alliance; Napoleonic invasion and background to Louisiana Purchase)

2. Haiti and the "Specter of Revolution" (Haiti and the origins of social revolution; French exiles and the Caribbean intellectual world—Southern emigration and fears; Latin American attitude—Creole elite and French planters?, Haiti and Dominican Republic)

II. Toward a Wider Revolutionary World

1. The Origins of the Latin American Revolutions (Wars of French Revolution and demise of Spain; Cadiz cabildo and Latin American counterrevolution?; Atlantic world and continuing intellectual communion—Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina; limits of revolutions—Hidalgo and Mexico)

2. The Great Powers and the Inter-American Revolutions (Britain, Smith, and world of free trade; postrevolutionary France, Metternich, and origins of Holy Alliance; Spain and need for allies; Portugal and implementation of Thomas Paine vision?; ambivalent attitude of Russia)

III. The US and the Latin American Revolutions

1. Liss: The "Large Policy" and Its Limits (Jefferson, Madison and vision for Atlantic Empire; Latin American response; continuing importance of commerce; War of 1812 and shifting nature of inter-American relations; strategic needs: Florida and US relations with Spain; significance of recognition; spreading of democracy; Poinsett and disillusionment)

2. Gleijeses: The Limits of Sympathy

3. Domestic Politics (Clay, Adams, and the battle over diplomatic recognition; the Monroe Doctrine and the election of 1824—cabinet government, importance of Adams, long-term significance of pronouncement; Panama Congress and aftermath of "corrupt bargain"—Adams and Jacksonian forces in Congress)

Caucus question for next time involves the importance of race in understanding American expansionism in the 1830s and 1840s. Access through the course web site.

Time Line

1791 origins of Haitian revolution

1793 attempted British invasion, Haiti

1800-1801 attempted French invasion, Haiti

1803 LA Purchase

1804 Haitian independence

1806 attempted British invasion, Argentina

1808 French invasion of Spain and Portugal

1810 Hidalgo revolt, Mexico

1811 Venezuelan independence, declaration modeled on US

1812 Colombian independence, constitution modeled on US; War of 1812

1815 Bolívar forced to retreat to the island of Jamaica

1816 Argentina declares independence

1818 Chile declares independence

1819 Adams-Onís Treaty (Florida)

1821 Mexico, Central America and Peru declare independence

1822 Pedro I, son of Portuguese King John, declares Brazil independent

1823 Monroe Doctrine

1824 Last patriot victories against Spain

1826 Panama Congress