History 439

World War II and Its Aftermath

February 8, 2007


I. World War I


            1. Nature of War (Turkish war aims, Gallipoli campaign, Armenian genocide)


            2. The United States and the Armenian Genocide (Wilson concerns, role of Morganthau)


            3. Wilson, the Middle East, and the War (Ottoman Empire in 14 Points; Zionist movement; Wilsonian rhetoric—ideals and reality: Egypt, Armenia)


II. The Interwar Era (continued from last time)


            1. The League and the Middle East (origins of the mandate system; Senate opposition—significance of peace progressives; boundaries and 1920s difficulties)


            2. The Origins of Oil Diplomacy (strategic effects of World War I: tanks and planes; Iraq and development of Red Line Agreement—Hoover and BFDC: oil access as part of international agenda; British reaction—strategic realities and imperial pretensions, development of Anglo-American cartel?; emergence of Saudi Arabia: Ibn Saud and postwar world; isolationism and 1920s approach; significance of Depression; reaching out to US; Standard Oil, ARAMCO, and origins of US-Saudi alliance)


III. World War II


            1. Origins of War (Hitler and the Middle East—strategic: opening to Iraq, interest in Egypt; racial—Grand Mufti, Jewish/Arab tensions; British retreat from Balfour Declaration; Turkish neutrality; significance of Iran)


            2. US Entrance (FDR strategic vision; FDR and domestic politics; Churchill and Balkans, Stalin and Second Front, decision for North African campaign; Darlan Deal and complications of Vichy diplomacy; Britain and El Alemain; pincer campaign, Rommel defeat, fall of Tunisia—German pows)


            3. Aftermath (origins of Cold War; Iranian crisis; Greek and Turkish threats; Arabists and northern tier; path to Truman Doctrine; effects)