History 439

The Cold War and the Middle East

February 20, 2007


I. World War II and Aftermath

            1. US Entrance (FDR strategic vision; North African campaign and US)

            2. Iran (contradictory Soviet goals: Azerbaijan and Kurdish separatist movements, Tudeh coup?, desire for oil; UN, Soviet withdrawal, and increased tensions)

            3. Turkey (Soviet pressures—straits, northeast, Kurdistan; path to Truman Doctrine)

            4. North Africa (wartime legacy, fate of Libya, Arab League)


II. Israel and Beyond

            1. Truman and Israel (pressures on Truman—Congress, American Jews, State Department Arabists, military, fear of being outflanked by Soviets, British recalcitrance; road to partition proposal; stalling policy—supporting partition, arms embargo, trustee?; decision to recognize; limitations of move; NSC 47/2—Arab democracy, turn to UN; early Israeli foreign policy and Cold War—significance of Ben Gurion)

            2. Beyond Israel (Northern Tier vs. Middle East: one region or two?; reaching out to Turkey; Shah and oil contracts; formation of Middle East Command: Britain and desire for US military commitment—defense of M.E. or defense of Egypt?; US emphasis on regionalism—role of Turkey and NATO, role of Egypt, collapse of concept; NSC 129/1—continuing emphasis on Cold War and democratization)


III. The Eisenhower Years

            1. New Look (NSC 162/2; role of economy; massive retaliation and Dulles; covert operations; role of Congress and McCarthyism; where does Middle East fit in?)

            2. Transforming the Middle East (Mussadiq, the Shah, and the 1953 coup; short- and long-term effects; Eisenhower and Nasser—exploiting the British; significance of Iraq and Pakistan; Turkey and Iraq; path to Baghdad Pact; road to U.A.R.; the US and Syria; where does Israel fit in?—arms procurement, security guarantee)

            3. Suez and Beyond (Israel/France/Britain marriage of convenience; US, Nasser, and Aswan Dam; Nasser’s turn east; Eden and Munich analogy; Eisenhower response; implementation of Eisenhower Doctrine; Qassem coup in Iraq; powers’ response—Britain to Jordan, US to Lebanon; rise and fall of Chamoun)