Middle East Realpolitik
March 13, 2007
I. Six-Day War and
2. The Conflict (importance of IAF, Jordanian decision to intervene and balance of power)
3. The Aftermath (increased Soviet presence; land for peace and UN 242; U.S. passivity)
II. A Realigned Middle East
1. Nixon (Nixon, Kissinger, and transforming international affairs: Vietnamization—from “peace with honor” to a “decent internal”; opening to China and triumph of realpolitik; where does Middle East fit in?, Kissinger/Rogers tensions)
2. Sadat (creation of anti-Israel alliance—importance of Iraq and Libya, resumption of relations with Syria, squeezing Jordan)
3. The Conflict (outbreak of war and Israeli intelligence failure; legacy of preemption; Egyptian and Syrian advances; failure of mediation and US decision to airlift; reversal of fortunes; path to cease-fire)
III. After-effects of War
1. Arab Diplomacy (Sadat and the Soviets: path to Camp David; fall of Meir government and path of Likud; US decisionmaking structure and renewed questions about Nixon; origins of OPEC diplomacy and transformation of Middle East—importance of Saudi Arabia)
2. Cyprus and US-Turkish Relations (Britain and independent Cyprus; Makarios government; colonels’ regime, coup, and Turkish invasion; international response; Congress—new internationalists, Greek lobby, path to Eagleton amendment; reaction—Kissinger, Turkey and US bases, congressional retreat)
The midterm is one week from today. These two fascinating questions will appear; you need to answer one. Answers should make an argument, use historical examples, and cite at least three examples from the reading.
1.) Despite the saying “politics stops at the water’s edge,” partisanship has often played a role in U.S. foreign policy. How useful, though, is partisan affiliation in analyzing the U.S. approach to the Middle East? Compare and contrast the policies of the three post-WWII Democratic presidents we have studied (Truman, JFK, LBJ) to the policies of Republicans Eisenhower and Nixon.
2.) To what extent did the Cold War shape U.S. policy toward the Middle East? Or were non-Cold War factors more significant? Discuss, with reference to U.S. policy toward the Middle East between 1946 and 1963.
Europe: Ownership of Passenger Cars by Country, 1980 (autos per 1000 inhabitants)