History 439

Transforming Middle East International Relations

March 15, 2007


I. The Nixon Effect
            1. Nixon and Sadat (realpolitik; are two sides complementary or competitors; role of new states like Libya and Iraq)

            2. The 1973 Conflict (Israeli intelligence failure and legacy of preemption; failure of mediation and US decision to airlift; reversal of fortunes; path to cease-fire)

3. Arab Diplomacy (Sadat and the Soviets; US decisionmaking structure and renewed questions about Nixon; OPEC diplomacy and Saudi Arabia)


II. Crisis Points

            1. The Eagleton Amendment and Its Effects (colonels’ regime, coup, and Turkish invasion; Congress—new internationalists: arms sales issue: Symington and Pakistan, Nelson-Bingham amendment, Middle East as venue; Greek lobby—importance of Sarbanes and Brademas, imitating Israeli lobby; path to Eagleton amendment; reaction—Kissinger, Turkey and US bases, congressional retreat; legacy: erratic congressional role, discrediting new internationalists?, significance of Turkey)

            2. Carter and the Middle East Peace Process (Sadat and realpolitik; Meir, Rabin, and collapse of Labor; Begin victory; Carter and foreign policy—1976 campaign, odd arrangement—Vance, Brzezinski, Derian; nature of settlement; limited political benefits)

            3. The Iranian Revolution (Carter and the Shah; Derian and foreign aid; weakening of Shah; US intelligence failure—trapped in the 1950s?; death of regime; second oil shock; from Bani-Sadr to Khomeini; hostages and American popular culture; “rescue mission” and resignation of Vance; crisis and its effects)

            4. The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (Afghanistan and the great game; deposition Zahir Shah and beginning of instability; Islam and Communism; Brezhnev Doctrine and assassination of Amin; Karmal presidency and invasion; origins of mujahadin)


The midterm, in five days, will include 10 of the IDs below, of which you must answer 7.


NSC 47/2

Monroe Doctrine

Eisenhower Doctrine

El Alemain

Long Telegram


Middle East Command

Foreign aid revolt

Red Line Agreement


Aswan Dam

TWA 840

Northern Tier

Black September

Johnston Plan

Azerbaijan crisis


Armenian genocide


Truman Doctrine

King Hussein

Barbary Wars

Abba Eban

Eagleton amendment





Project OMEGA


Mandate system

King Hussein

NSC 162/2

UN 242

Darlan Deal


Baghdad Pact

Balkan Wars

Camille Chamoun