Study Questions - Exam #1
1. What are the 3 basic questions important for the study of associative learning?
2. What are 3 good reasons for non-human animals to study learning processes?
3. Discuss some of the important features of Descartes philosophy which have had impact on contemporary thinking about learning.
4. What are the three basic tenets of British Empiricism? State them and describe them.
5. Discuss Sechonov's approach to spontaneous and voluntary behavior.
5. How did Pavlov extend the work and ideas of Sechenov?
6. Describe how Pavlov's paradigm could be used to study one of the British Empiricists associative laws.
7. What are the implications for learning theory of evolutionary theory's notions of mental continuity and species diversity?
8. How were Thorndike's ideas on instrumental conditioning influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory?
1. What is habituation?
2. How has habituation been distinguished from response fatigue and sensory adaptation processes?
3. What does dishabituation refer to, and why is it important?
4. What is sensitization?
5. Describe the experiment which is suggestive of the possibility that habituation has both short-term and long-term components. Be sure to indicate the procedures used, the results obtained, and know which features of the results allow us to reach the conclusion.
6. Describe two lines of evidence suggestive of the view that dishabituation and sensitization are different psychological processes.
7. What are the key elements of opponent process theory and how might it explain drug tolerance? What other situations might you use this theory to explain human behavior?
Basic concepts of Conditioning (EXCEPT FOR QUESTION 10!!!!!)
1. Pavlovian conditioning is said to be a rather general form of learning. Why is this claimed? Describe at least four examples of Pavlovian learning as it has been studied in the laboratory.
2. Describe the sexual conditioning study of Domjan Blesbois, & Williams (1998) being sure to point out the CS, US, UR, and CR. What response system would you say comes under Pavlovian control in this study?
3. Explain drug tolerance using Siegel’s Pavlovian conditioning model. Also, offer two ways of testing the basic ideas. Why does drug overdose occur according to this view?
4. Describe the delay, long delay, trace, simultaneous, and backward conditioning procedures. What is inhibition of delay?
5. Describe one good way of going about measuring excitatory conditioning when the CS is not observed to evoke any obviously detectable CR. Hint: think about the phenomenon of second-order conditioning.
6. What constitutes a good control group for assessing excitatory Pavlovian conditioning?
7. Why did Pavlov think that extinction of excitatory conditioning does NOT result in unlearning? In other words, discuss three phenomena that suggests otherwise.
8. What was Pavlov's preferred alternative explanation of the effects of extinction?
9. What is one good way of producing inhibitory conditioning. What are the two most common ways of measuring conditioned inhibition?
10. What constitutes a good control group for assessing inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning? Also, what is wrong with using the explicitly unpaired control procedure as a control to assess excitatory conditioning?