THE HYPOTHESIS: In places, the crust of the earth is subject to horizontal forces that cause deformation. These deformational forces may cause the surface of the earth to be locally uplifted, depressed or tilted. Local uplifts may result in hills or mountains. Local depressions may result in lowlands or valleys. Tilting may cause previously flat areas to become inclined. One or more major landforms of the NYC area are due to uplift, depression or tilting caused by deformation.

THE PREDICTION: You have made a prediction as to what characteristic features should be observed in the NYC region if any of the hills or valleys or sloping flat surfaces originated through uplift, depression or tilting caused by deformation.

ASSEMBLING THE DATA: To devise and evaluate your prediction, you have examined data:

  • about geologic processes.
  • about the materials of the NYC area.
  • about the landforms of the NYC area.

What you need to do:

Now use that data to evaluate your prediction.
Click on each of the two blue buttons to examine and analyze details of the geology of NYC. Enter your results on Deformation Evaluation Form # Q-9.

Block Diagram of Parts of Manhattan, the Bronx, and New Jersey: Details and Analysis.
Block Diagram Across Central Brooklyn: Details and Analysis.
Printout Deformation Evaluation
Form # Q-9.

David J. Leveson