Up Topic 1: Search for the Historical Jesus Topic 2: Context of Jesus' World TOPIC 3 THE HISTORICAL JESUS TOPIC 4:EARLY CHRISTIANITIES TOPIC 5 PATRISTIC AGE TOPIC 6

Topic VII.  Christianity: East & West, 500-1500





THEME: The Development of Christendom as the Foundation of Medieval European Civilization

The conversion of the Roman Empire went on steadily in the centuries after the establishment  of  Christianity. The result was an idea of society, state, and church as all related parts of one entity, Christendom
During the last 500 years of the first millennium the conversion of Germanic, Slavic, and other peoples produced a synthesis of classical Greco-Roman civilization and the invading cultures. 
Christendom, although preserving the ideal of a unified Roman Empire,  developed into distinct Latin and Greek traditions. Between 1000 and 1500 the schism was completed and the two cultural traditions of Christendom were established.
In the first 500 years of the second millennium the Western  and Eastern traditions of classical Christianity came into full flower. 


Rome: Old and New

Constantinople: The New Rome [OC: chap. 3 (106-112)]
Emperor and Patriarch: Caesaropalism & Symphonia
Icons & Eastern Orthodox Piety: Christ, the True Image 
OC: chap. 3 (112-127); JP: 7; X: Iconoclastic Controversy
Browse at least one of these sites:
Eastern Orthodox Art Treasures, Mount Athos Monasteries
Mount Athos and Greek Orthodox Monasticism
Greek Orthodox Monasticism, an extensive media site
Greek Orthodox Monastic Tradition, another rich site
From Estrangement to Schism & the Challenge of Islam 
OC: chap. 3 (127-129)


 Byzantine Architecture and Icons: Expressions of Orthodox Piety
hagsph1.jpg (79950 bytes) Hagia Sophia, interior
hagsph.jpg (56732 bytes) Hagia Sophia, interior
ikonst.jpg (81103 bytes) Iconostasis
virgluke.jpg (85431 bytes) Theotokos (God Bearer); Mater Dei (Mother of God): Virgin of Vladimir, Russian, c. 1125
annunc.jpg (70032 bytes) Annunciation: Icon on a processional cross by the Master of Constantinople, early 14th century, Macedonian
rublev.jpg (76023 bytes) The Holy Trinity,  painted by Andrei Rublev, a Russian icon painter, 15th century



The Old Rome: The Rise of the Papacy & the Conversion of Western Europe
The Two Swords: Temporal & Spiritual Power
chap. 4 (130-162); X: Constantineís Donation, Innocent III, Unam Sanctam
Forms of Piety [OC: chap. 4 (143-166)]
The Monastic Ideal & Renewal (JP: chap. 9; X: Benedictís Rule)
Mysticism (OC: 166-170; JP: chap. 10; X: B: Song of Solomon, Julian of Norwich, St John of the Cross)
Christian Humanism & the Transformation of Church and Society
 OC: chap. 4 (162-183)
The Divine & Human Model (JP: chap. 11; X: St. Francis)
Christian Humanism & the Renaissance [Slide Presentation]
(JP: chap. 12; X: Erasmus)


MAJOR EVENTS: 500-1500

527-565 Emperor Justinian (The Justinian Age) re-conquers Italy and North Africa;  529 he issues the Justinian Code of Roman law, a revision of Theodosius' Code.

540 Benedict writes Monastic Rule

563 Columba starts Celtic Christian mission community on Iona

590-604  Gregory I (the  Great) Bishop of Rome

597 Augustine, sent by Gregory I, converts Ethelbert, king of Kent (England), beginning  conversion of Saxon England


622 Muhammadís Hegira (flight to Medina), birth or Islam

638-56 Arabs (Islam) conquer Palestine, Iraq, Syria, Egypt

664 Celtic and Roman churches joined at Council of Whitby in England

698 Lindisfarne  Gospels


711-16 Arabs (Islam) conquer Spain

719-754 Boniface's mission to Germans

726-843 Iconoclast Controversy in Eastern Church

732 BATTLE OF TOURS, Arabs driven back from France by Charles Martel

737 2nd Council of Nicea settles Icon controversy; resistance continues to 843


800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor

861 East-West conflict over Photius

862 Cyril and Methodius begin mission to the Slavs, expanding Greek Christianity [Eastern Orthodoxy] into eastern Europe.


909 Monastery of Cluny founded, beginning a center for reform

988 Conversion of Vladimir of Kiev, beginning conversion of Russia and  extending Greek Christianity [Eastern Orthodox] into north eastern Europe.


1054 "The Great Schism" between Rome and Constantinople, splitting Eastern [Greek] and Western [Latin] Christianity

1059 - 1122 Investiture Controversy: Begins in 1059 with Pope Nicholas II condemning the custom of emperors and other secular rulers investing bishops and abbots with their symbols of office, a practice linked to lay patronage to key church posts.

1066 William the Conqueror and the Norman Conquest of  England

1075 Pope Gregory VII prohibits all lay investiture for Church offices.

1077 Emperor Henry IV submits to Pope over Investiture

1093-1109 Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury

1095 First Crusade begins


1105 England and Papacy compromise over Investiture
1107 France and Papacy compromise on Investiture

1115 Bernard founds monastery at Clairvaux

1122 Concordat of Worms ends Investiture Controversy

1141 Hildegard of Bingen begins writing
1141 Abelard's teaching condemned

1150 Universities of Oxford and Paris begin
1150 Mystery plays fourish

1170 Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, murdered in the cathedral

1173 Waldensian movement  begins, eventually leading to a "heretical" movement.


1208 Francis of Assisi renounces wealth

1215 Magna Carta
1215 Pope Innocent III calls 4th Lateran Council

1220 Dominick establishes Order of Preachers

1232 Pope Gregory IX appoints "Inquisitors"

1272 Thomas Acquinas's Summa Theologiae


1302 Pope Boniface VIII in Unam Sanctam proclaims Papal supremacy

1309 Papacy's "Babylonian" exile to Avignon in  France begins

1321 Dante's Divine Comedy

1348 Black Death begins

1370 Catherine of Siena's Letters

1373 Julian of Norwich's mystical  experience

1378 Great Papal Schism

1380 Wyclif works on translation of the Bible into English


1414 Council of Constance

1415 Jan Hus burned at the stake for heresy

1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake

1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks; end of the Eastern Roman Empire

1456 Gutenberg Bible and the cultural revolution of print

1476 Caucer's Canterbury Tales

1479 Spanish Inquisition established

1497 Savonarola excommunicated